Carlos Cruz-Diez

About the artist

Caracas, Venezuela (1923)

He is one of the leading exponents of contemporary art, in particular, optical kinetic art. His plastic proposition, one of the most originals of the movement, reveals the artist as one of the last thinkers of color in the twentieth century. His research, based on three chromatic conditions: subtractive, additive and reflective, has brought to art a new way of understanding the color phenomenon, broadening considerably its perceptive universe.

Cruz-Diez's work revolves around color conceived as an autonomous reality, devoid of anecdotes, that evolves in real space and time, with no past or future, existing in a perpetual present. In his works, the color appears as a reality that can simply be, unassisted by form or even support.

His works are included, among others, in the permanent collections of: Museum of Modern Art, New York; Tate Modern, London; Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris; Museum of Fine Arts, Houston; Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne; Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris.

Among his individual and collective exhibitions, the following stand out: “Bewogen Beweging”, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam (1961); “Mouvement 2”, Galerie Denise René, Paris (1964); “The Responsive Eye”, Museum of Modern Art, New York (1965); “Cruz-Diez: Cinq propositions sur la couleur”, Galerie Denise René, Paris (1969); “Carlos Cruz-Diez: Die Autonomie der Farbe”, Josef Albers Museum, Bottrop (1988); “Une Tour Eiffel haute en couleurs”, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris (2003); “Inverted Utopias: Avant-garde Art in Latin America”, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (2004); “Lo(s) Cinético(s)”, Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid (2007); “In(formed) by Color”, The Americas Society, New York (2008); “Carlos Cruz-Diez: El color sucede”, Museu d’Art Espanyol Contemporani, Palma de Mallorca (2009); “Cruz-Diez: El color, una circunstancia espacial y temporal”, Marión Gallery, Panama (2010); “Environment Chromatic-Interferences: Interactive Space by Carlos Cruz-Diez”, Guangdong Museum of Art, Guangzhou (2010); “Carlos Cruz-Diez: Color in Space and Time”, The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (2011); “Carlos Cruz-Diez: A cor no espaço e no tempo”, Pinacoteca do estado, São Paulo (2012); “La Invención Concreta: Colección Patricia Phelps de Cisneros”, Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid (2013); “Dynamo. Un siècle de lumière et de mouvement dans l’art. 1913-2013”, Galeries nationales du Grand Palais, Paris (2013).


His works can be found in permanent collections such as:

Museum of Modern Art, New York
Tate Modern, London
Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris
Museum of Fine Arts, Houston
Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne
Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de París

The following are some of his solo and group exhibitions:

"The Responsive Eye", Museum of Modern Art, New York, United States (1965)
"Carlos Cruz-Diez. Die Autonomie der Farbe [The Anatomy of Color]", Josef Albers Museum, Bottrop, Germany (1988)
"Une Tour Eiffel haute en couleurs [A Colorful Eiffel Tower]", Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France (2003)
"Inverted Utopias. Avant-Garde Art in Latin America", Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, United States (2004)
"Lo(s) Cinético(s) [The Kinetic(s)]", Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid, Spain (2007)
"(In)Formed by Color. Carlos Cruz-Diez", The Americas Society, New York, United States (2008)
"El Color Sucede [Color Happens]", Museu d’Art Espanyol Contemporani, Palma de Mallorca, Spain (2009); Museo de Arte Abstracto Español, Cuenca, Spain (2009)
"Carlos Cruz Diez. The Embodied Experience of Color", Miami Art Museum, United States (2010)
"Suprasensorial Experiments in Light, Color, and Space", The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, United States (2010)
"Carlos Cruz-Diez. Color in Space and Time", Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Unitd States (2011)

Biographical Elements


1923 Born in Caracas, on August 17th, Venezuela.
1940 Studies at the School of Fine Arts in Caracas, where he obtaines the diploma of professor in Applied Arts, Caracas, Venezuela.
1944 Designs the publications of the Creole Petroleum Corporation and illustrates other newspapers and publications, Caracas, Venezuela.
1944 Makes comics for various newspapers, Caracas, Venezuela.
1946 Works as creative director of advertising agency McCann-Erickson Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela.
1947 Travels to New York for an advertising training, United States.
1947 Held his first personal exhibition 12 Gouaches de Carlos Cruz-Diez, Instituto Venezolano-Americano, Caracas, Venezuela.
1953 Works as an illustrator for El Nacional newspaper and other publications, Caracas, Venezuela.
1955 Settled in El Masnou, Barcelona, Spain.
1955 Travels to Paris and visits the exhibition Le Mouvement at the Galerie Denise René, France.
1956 Exhibits his work at the Galerie Buchholz, in Madrid, where he presents the Parénquimas and the Objetos Rítmicos Móviles, Spain.
1957 Illustrator of literary publications of the Ministry of Education, Caracas, Venezuela.
1957 Founded the Estudio de Artes Visuales [Visual Arts Studio] for graphic and industrial design, Caracas, Venezuela.
1958 Adjunct director and painting professor at the School of Fine Arts, Caracas, Venezuela.
1958 Professor of typography and graphic design at the Escuela de Periodismo [Journalism School], Universidad Central, Venezuela.
1959 Creates his first Couleur Additive and Physichromie, Caracas, Venezuela.
1960 Settled permanently in Paris with his family, France.
1961 Participates at the exhibition Le Mouvement at the Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
1963 Creates and develops the first series of Induction Chromatique, Chromointerférence et Transchromie Aléatoire, Paris, France.
1963 Participates at the exhibition Nove Tendencije 2, Zagreb, Croatia.
1964 Participates at the exhibition Le Mouvement 2 at the Galerie Denise René, Paris, France.
1965 Advisor of the Centre Culturel Noroît, Arras, France.
1965 Inaugurates at the Galerie Kerchache his first personal exhibition in Paris: Physichromies de Cruz-Diez. Œuvres de 1954 à 1965, France.
1965 Participates at the exhibition The Responsive Eye, Museum of Modern Art, New York, United States.
1967 Graphic visualizer and co-founder of the art magazine Robho, Paris, France.
1967 Participates at the exhibition Lumière et Mouvement held at the Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, France.
1969 Installed Labyrinthe de Chromosaturation on the Boulevard Saint- Germain, Paris, France.
1970 Personal exhibition at the XXXV Biennale di Venezia, Venezuelan Pavilion, Venice, Italy.
1972 Taught “kinetic techniques” at the Unité d’Études et Recherches d’Arts Plastiques at the Université Panthéon-Sorbonne, Paris, France.
1973 Opens a new workshop, Caracas, Venezuela.
1973 Jury member for the diploma of the École Supérieure des Beaux- Arts, Paris, France.
1973 Works on numerous large projects related to integrated architectural works, Caracas, Venezuela.
1975 Creates the Environnement Chromatique for the headquarters of the Union des Banques Suisses in Zürich, Switzerland.
1980 Opening of the travelling exhibition Didáctica y Dialéctica del Color at the Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas, Venezuela.
1986 Head of the Art Unit of the Instituto de Estudios Avanzados (IDEA), Caracas, Venezuela.
1989 Published his book Reflexión sobre el Color, Caracas, Venezuela.
1997 Opening of the Museo de la Estampa y el Diseño Carlos Cruz-Diez [Carlos Cruz-Diez Museum of Print and Design], Caracas, Venezuela.
2007 Honorary Member of the Venezuelan Academy of Language, Venezuela.
2009 Opens an Atelier Cruz-Diez in Panama City, Republic of Panama.
2009 Publishes the second edition in Spanish and English of his book Reflexión sobre el Color, Madrid, Spain.
2010 Celebrates fifty years of life in France, Paris, France.
2011 Inaugurates his most important retrospective exhibition Carlos Cruz-Diez. Color in Space and Time, at The Museum of Fine Arts (MFAH), Houston, United States.
2012 Receives the rank of Officer of the Ordre national de la Légion d’honneur, Paris, France.


For more information about this artist please visit his website:

Sort by:
Pages 1 / 1